Reflection from the late GEORGE ROBOTHAM – See his other articles HERE
This is probably one of the most significant pieces of work that I have published for sometime. I have been involved with its evolution for quite a while now and it has been peer reviewed of over 50 professionals and modified accordingly.
I must stress the point that this is NOT another boring white paper or exercise in navel gazing by some boffin who has never worked for a living! It is deliberately not written in an academically rigorous style so as not to be perceived as yet another irrelevant academic paper. Being a humble genius, George makes the point that he doesn’t think he has all the answers and his aim with the paper is to simply promote discussion so we can all learn. George uses real examples from his “coal face” experience and quotes from notable world leaders to make his excellent points. ENJOY!!!!!!!
The Things You Need To Know About Health and Safety Leadership
by George Robotham
People do not care how much you know, they want to know how much you care – Alexander G.
“A health and safety problem can be described by statistics but cannot be understood by statistics. It can only be understood by knowing and feeling the pain, anguish, and depression and shattered hopes of the victim and of wives, husbands, parents, children, grandparents and friends, and the hope, struggle and triumph of recovery and rehabilitation in a world often unsympathetic, ignorant, unfriendly and unsupportive, only those with close experience of life altering personal damage have this understanding”
Leadership can make or break an organisation. It is my contention that general leadership principles and specific safety leadership principles are not applied frequently or well in Australian industry. This paper is written with the intention of introducing supervisors, managers, OHS personnel, H.R.M. personnel and Learning personnel to general and safety leadership, encouraging them to learn more about the topics and to apply the principles in the workplace.
The paper explains the importance of general leadership and safety leadership and comments on the current state of the both types of leadership in Australian industry. Examples of my personal experience with general and safety leadership are given. The importance of management commitment in leadership is emphasised and some of the characteristics of successful leaders are discussed. The results of a major safety benchmarking study are summarised and there is specific discussion on successful safety leadership. Much of the paper references the work of acknowledged experts in general and safety leadership.
There are some suggestions on what the OHS professional can do to improve safety leadership in their organisation. Comment is given on the availability of leadership learning in Australia, I summarise what I think are the ten top things in safety leadership. The two questions at the end of the paper are very important for all safety professionals to answer.
Purpose of this paper
The purpose of this paper is to identify those factors that contribute to effective safety leadership and to assist in the development of safety leadership management plans.
Why is safety leadership important
Safety leadership defines the purpose, goals, vision, mission and objectives of the safety management system. It further sets the direction for safety, lays down the expectations and guides implementation. It is a vital component of strategic and operational management plans. Leaders must manage by walking around and often be seen in the workplace.
Why read this paper? What will I learn? What is in it for me?
This paper will serve as a basic introduction to safety leadership, hopefully encourage you to learn more about the topic and serve as a motivator and basic knowledge for development of safety leadership plans. This will assist in the reduction of Class 1 personal damage in your organisation (Class 1 personal damage is that which permanently alters the future of the individual-Fatal and non-fatal) Excellent safety leadership is the key to excellent safety management systems. The sections What The OHS Professional Can Do To Improve Safety Leadership and The top 10 things that are essential for safety leadership may be of particular interest.
Having survived a number of years in industry I am acutely aware that leadership of an organisation can make or break the organisation. The importance of leadership is vastly underrated in Australian industry, Leadership is the often forgotten key to excellence in all aspects of business and life. Unfortunately it is sometimes the refuge of scoundrels.
Excellent health and safety leadership is the most important thing in maintaining an excellent health and safety management system. Having researched general and health and safety leadership extensively I am of the view we should be doing more to integrate general leadership principles into health and safety.
Health and safety leadership is a line management function and an integral part of management accountability. It requires a solid understanding of core skills, competencies, planning and execution. Senior leaders must personally drive the health and safety culture. All leaders must clearly communicate expectations, model and reinforce required health and safety behaviours and demonstrate a strong link between their health and safety leadership and career opportunities. Training, on the job learning, coaching, mentoring and projects or secondments to share health and safety knowledge are means of developing the required leadership (Adapted from Rio Tinto)
In my experience many supervisors and managers know little about general leadership and even less about safety leadership. It is rare to find an OHS professional who has a good understanding of general leadership and many do not have a good grasp of safety leadership. I would go as far as to say leadership is not understood by many in management. People are often promoted to supervisor / manager positions because of their technical skills and with little knowledge of and preparation for leadership. How much OHS education is evident in tertiary education of potential managerial personnel?
Leaders influence, inspire and drive people to a common goal, create vision and excitement; set a direction, motivate and inspire people to follow; align people; and build new relationships and structure. Leadership is about people.
Managers keep the day-to-day operations of an organisation running smoothly and must plan and budget; coordinate, control and execute activities; organise staff and work within an existing structure. Management is about systems and things.
General Colin Powell is reported as having said leadership is the art of accomplishing more than the science of management says is possible.
Honest and ethical behavior is the centre piece of leadership, we constantly hear about otherwise highly competent leaders who fail because of ethical issues. When highly ethical leaders do not take up the leadership challenge less ethical people will fill the void. This appears to happen commonly in politics, business and the sporting world.
Personal experience of leadership
Early in my OHS career I made an error of judgement while working for a safety consultancy organisation. The General Manager attempted to discipline me in a team meeting. My manager, Tim, intervened and took full responsibility for my mistake. I later thanked Tim who explained he did what he did to send messages to 3 groups of people.
The General Manager: “No-one interferes with my people, discipline of my people is my responsibility and it will only be used when all other avenues have been explored and it will always be positive and done in private.”
You: “You were feeling down and I wanted to let you know you were still a valued member of my team”
Other team members: “I am in charge of this outfit and no-one else interferes with my team. Making mistakes that we learn from is perfectly acceptable”
I would have followed Tim anywhere after this.
It has taken me thirty years and reading extensively about leadership to realise the significance of what Tim did that day.
“Leaders send out messages, often subtly, about what they value and expect.”
For about a year I worked with a General Manager Operations, John, who could best be described as a humble but focused leader who had an overriding commitment to safety. John would turn up at operating sites in the middle of the night to see how safety was being managed. He would jump on a haul truck and go with the operator while the truck was loaded, John would question the operators about safety and tell them that he expected safety to be their top priority. He would walk through the workshop and observe how work was being performed. He would then gather everybody together and give them feedback about safety and tell them what he expected.
He used to give the workers his mobile number and tell them to call him anytime if a safety issue was not solved to their satisfaction. This did not happen often but there was some big action when it did. The approach by John was not always appreciated by the business unit supervisors and managers as he often knew more about how safety was managed at their site than they did, they were kept on their toes.
John had a very simple approach to safety audits, he chose ten things his wide experience told him had been known to cause fatalities and the associated prevention methods. He audited to see if the required preventative actions were in place. At the audit closing meeting he reported on the status of the items and said he expected the required actions to be in place by the time he came back in six months. All this was said in a soft, slow, Southern drawl but the managers and supervisors knew their jobs were on the line.
John let his subordinates know he expected nothing less than 100% commitment to safety, those who did not comply were not around long. Word quickly got around about his safety expectations, single handed he raised the profile of safety in the organisation. Unfortunately after John left there was no one to carry on his work at the same level.
Then there was my manager, Greg. I organised an outside training organisation to conduct training for health and safety representatives. Early in the course the instructor asked me to come over and talk to the participants who raised a number of quite reasonable safety issues with me. Some were within my power to fix so we discussed how to fix them. Some required management action so I asked Greg to attend. Well what a circus! We lost count of the number of times he told us how committed to safety he was, we also lost count of the even greater number of times he refused to commit to positive action to address the issues. In the end the group lost patience with Greg and told him to leave and stop wasting their time. The course instructor, a highly qualified OHS professional, was dumbfounded by the performance Greg put on and asked me where I had got him from. It was not long after this that I resigned, I figured I was wasting my time with a manager like Greg.
Lastly there is my mate Roy who leads the “Connect” program for at risk youth, “Connect” uses adventure-based training to teach team building, leadership and life style skills to young people facing various difficulties in their lives. Working from a simple but well researched and validated model “Connect” influences the lives of everyone it touches, for many it transforms their lives.
Roy is an extremely humble and effective, grass-roots leader with very high moral principles who puts his heart and soul into his work. Through his uncomplicated leadership style Roy has moulded a highly motivated team that consistently operates at a high level. If I was to analyse Roy’s leadership style I would say he simply does the leadership basics exceptionally well. There is little complexity in the way Roy goes about leadership, this is a major strength.
Framework of What Follows
The majority of what follows is the wise words of acknowledged experts in health and safety leadership gained after extensive research into this topic.
Livermore (in Carter, Ulrich and Goldsmith, page 46) observes “The best system or model in the world is not going to do your organisation a bit of good unless you have a top down commitment to making it work. Your board of directors, C.E.O., and senior management have to be firmly committed to being the best of the best .They set the tone and direction of the entire organisation. This creates a trickle-down effect throughout the organisation. Once mid-level management and low level employees, see top executives leading the way, most of them will begin to support the initiative as well.”
Kouzes on leadership (The Art and Practice of Leadership Coaching)
The most important quality people look for and admire in a leader is personal credibility. Credibility is the foundation of leadership. If we do not believe in the messenger we will not believe the message. And what is credibility behaviourally?. The most frequent response is “Do what you say you will do.”, or “DWYSYWD” for short.
Leaders must be clear about their beliefs. They must know what they stand for. Then they must put what they say into practice, they must act on their beliefs.
“The people are fashioned according to the example of their king and edicts are less powerful than the life (example) of the king” Claudian, c. 365,Egyptian epic poet
Leaders must build trust
Introducing OHS change inevitably upsets the established order in organizations and forces people to question their existing role in the organization. Often people will be asked to do something that is different from the norm and to do that which they do not agree with. Persons introducing and leading OHS change must ensure they are trusted by those they are seeking to join them in the OHS change journey.
The above is adapted from Johnson D.W. “Reaching Out” (1990) . This text is recommended reading for those involved in safety change and leadership.
Pride in company
Sense of self-worth
It therefore follows that if the employer gives X then employees give Y
Sense of self-worth
(Private communication, Len Collie)
Health and Safety Leadership Specifically
International researchers have argued that leadership is one of the most critical determinants of workplace safety performance. Supported by over two decades of research, their findings indicate that leadership plays an integral role in developing and maintaining the safety climate in an organisation. (Andreychuk)
Benchmark Study on Safety Leadership
Over a 14 month period in 1994 – 1995 BHP Minerals carried out an extensive international safety benchmarking exercise with “best in safety class” companies throughout the world.
25 locations throughout the world participated in the study. An approximate 100 page report on findings is available should anyone wish to refer to it.
The following were recurring themes in the world’s best safety performers.
* = Key factors
1. * Executive management provides the impetus for safety performance. This means that senior management is not only committed to and supports safety, but that it insists on safety performance in a manner that is clearly understood and echoed at all levels.
2. * Management focus is a key to quality safety performance.
3. Existence of a company-wide framework or systematic, standardised approach to safety. The approach has performance standards that receive regular internal and external audits
4. Objectives are set and organisations work towards set targets for implementation of the objectives.
5. Safety personnel report in at the highest level in the organisations. They have mainly an advisory function. Management and supervision drives the safety program not the safety personnel.
6. Effective safety training targeted to identified needs at all levels. Induction training and detailed safety training for supervisors and managers was high on the priority list.
Regular safety meetings were seen as important.
7. Active personal involvement of senior management personnel in the safety program
8. Safety is considered in performance evaluations of all staff
9. Regular, detailed audits of the safety management system
10. Formal approaches to hazard identification and risk analysis, employees were fully involved in this
11. Formal emergency response procedures that were practiced and audited
12. The best in class addressed contractor safety before contractors were allowed on site, they pre-qualified them based on safety and made safety performance a contract condition. Contractors were expected to perform at the same safety level as permanent employees
13. High on the list of the ways the best in class built safety awareness were management participation and leadership, dissemination of information, safety meetings and rewards or recognition of performance
14. Safety is a condition of employment and dismissals occur for non-performance
15. Well-managed rehabilitation programs are in place
16. The best in class use medical examinations and testing to ensure fitness for duty
17. There were Employee Assistance Programs in place
18. There were off the job safety programs
19. There was an emphasis on vehicle / plant maintenance and driver / operator training programs.
20. There were extensive personal protective equipment training, maintenance and audit programs
21. Lock-out procedures were used instead of tag-out
22. Best in class managers and supervisors respond positively to safety issues that are raised
23. Best in class supervisors are responsible for safety auditing, investigating accidents, planned job observations and training
24. All levels in the organisation make decisions that reflect the philosophy “Safety first-Production will follow”
It is suggested Safety Management Systems be designed around these benchmarking findings.
Superior leadership, the key to safety
“But in the midst of this turnaround, although we were much improved on safety, we were still having a few lost time accidents. I wanted zero so I decided to give the order that any person could stop any job at any time for safety and that the job would not be re-started until that person was satisfied with the fix. This gave the union personnel the power to make it safe and then they would have no excuse for accidents. Well, the results were nothing short of fantastic.
In a period of 8 months we had stopped all lost time accidents and rarely thereafter even had minor ones. Success and everybody loved it. Convince people that you are serious about safety and they will respond.
My leadership strategy was a very important key to safety, productivity et al. Superior leadership is a strategy to inspire people to do more, dream more and learn more.
Values are the centerpiece of this strategy because employees respect actions which reflect high standards of all good values like industry, fairness, forthrightness, compassion, honesty etc while they disrespect actions reflecting low or negative standards. Actions reflecting high standards strongly influence employees towards emulating those standards, but the same emulation occurs for actions reflecting low standards.
Listening is the most important leadership skill of this strategy because people cannot be motivated or committed to something if they cannot “put in their 2 cents worth”, when they want and how they want, or if they cannot understand and be in on the decision process which affects them. Of such things is TRUST built”
Simonton B., Simonton Associates
The role of leaders in safety change
Krause (2004) speaks of nine factors that predict positive safety outcomes
1. Procedural justice
Does the individual perceive that the supervisor’s decision-making process to be fair?
1. Leader member exchange
If employees believe the supervisor will provide support and look out for their interests positive results will be found
2. Management credibility
Do employees perceive that what management says is consistent with what it does?
3. Perceived organizational support
Do employees perceive that they receive the support they need to accomplish the organisation’s objectives?
4. Workgroup relations
Do co-workers treat each other with respect, listen to each others ideas, help one another out and fulfill commitments?
To what extent do employees perceive that working with team members is an effective way to complete tasks?
6. Organisational value for safety performance improvement
The more employees perceive that the organization values safety goals, the more willing they will be to invest in those goals themselves.
7. Upward communication
Can the workers speak freely to their supervisor about safety concerns?
8. Approaching others
Do employees feel free to speak to each other about safety concerns?
Leading safety excellence-One company’s perspective
J.E.Jacobs Engineering and Constructors (2004) maintain the characteristics of successful leaders are
Establishing a vision, missions or goals
Communicating in a way that inspires
Making followers feel part of something important and satisfying
A good leader uses positive reinforcement because it is found most people repeat behaviour that results in positive consequences. Positive reinforcement has also proved to be the best way to maintain existing good behaviour. Positive reinforcement may consist of verbal acknowledgement, public praise and material awards. It may be immediate, during meetings, after giving a suggestion and when performing well.
J. E. Jacobs Engineering and Constructors also quote General Norman Schwartzkopf “To be a 21st century leader you must have the competence and character to win and keep the trust of others”
How to be a safety leader
The author is grateful to Dave Cowley of HP Hood LLC, Chelsea , MA 02150 (October 2000)for sharing the company tip card.
Tips on how to be a Safety Leader
1. Walk the Talk
Visibly demonstrate safety by your actions, practice what you preach, wear proper protective equipment, employees look to you for example
2. Give Recognition
When you see an employee doing a job safely praise them for it,reward safety every change you get
3. Report All Incidents
Report all incidents no matter how slight, emphasise it is vital to be on the look-out for near-misses, minor mishaps and close calls instead of waiting for an actual injury to occur
If a safety concern has been raised, always perform follow-up and provide feed-back to the employee
5. Ask Questions
Are employees using equipment that has been inspected (hand tools, forklifts, motor vehicles etc.)
Krause (2004) describes what excellent safety leadership looks like
The most senior executive must “see” what safety excellence looks like. The leader must convey his vision in a compelling manner through action.
When an excellent safety leader says something others believe it and do not question his motives.
Collaboration encompasses working well with others encouraging input, helping others, expressing confidence in others support others decisions and gaining commitment.
4. Feedback and Recognition
An excellent safety leader provides effective feedback and recognises people for their accomplishments.
An excellent safety leader gives workers a fair appraisal of safety efforts and results, clearly communicates peoples roles in safety and fosters the sense that people are responsible for the level of safety in their organisational unit.
As a great communicator the leader encourages people to deliver honest, complete information about safety (even if unfavourable) keeps people informed and communicates frequently and effectively up, down and across the organisation.
7. Values safety
An excellent safety leader acts to support safety values and principles. He leads by example and clearly communicates that safe behaviour is expected.
An excellent safety leader is proactive rather than reactive in addressing safety issues. He gives timely, considered responses to safety concerns, demonstrates a sense of personal energy and urgency to achieve safety results and demonstrates a performance driven focus by delivering results with speed and excellence.
Emerging challenges in safety leadership
Having an individual who is a great safety leader is one thing, maintaining that leadership after that individual leaves the organisation is another thing. Someone much smarter than me said good leaders lead and great leaders develop other leaders.
Much is spoken about developing leadership, an equal amount of effort must be expended on developing “followship”.
What The OHS Professional Can Do To Improve Safety Leadership
1. Learn as much as you can about general and safety leadership. Reference to the sources of information in this paper will help.
2. Carry out a survey to identify the workforce perception of company leadership, there are various ways of going about this. Sometimes there is value in collating the answers onto histograms, displaying the histograms to the people who completed the survey, discussing the results and trying to establish why the responses are the way they are. This is best done by as senior a managers as possible who does not react defensively to criticism.
3. Survey the leadership styles of your leaders, various instruments are available. Carrying out a force field analysis on safety leadership may help to focus issues.
4. Identify the relevant learning needs of leaders using a formalized learning needs analysis.
5. Based on the above develop a safety leadership project plan in association with the stakeholders. Form a project team to manage the plan. Get management approval for the plan.
6. Launch and communicate the safety leadership project plan. My general advice with communication is to use face to face communication wherever possible, use the powerful influence of the work group supervisor and frame communication relevant to the work environment of the group being communicated to. High powered communications from senior management about the goals, mission, vision and the objectives of the company will not have much of an impact with many of the workers.
7. Carry out interactive leadership learning using Action and Experiential learning models. The learning must have a focus on the reality of the workplace. My advice is to check out both the process and content of potential providers very carefully, there are some snake oil salesmen in this space. I know it is not everybody’s thing but properly structured outdoor learning experiences can be a powerful means of leadership learning. Just ensure the focus is on the learning not the outdoor experience.
8. As a follow up to learning facilitation engage in authentic safety leadership tasks / activities / projects in the workplace. Progress must be regularly discussed, reviewed and evaluated, Celebrate the success of these. McDonalds use WOW projects in their leadership learning.
9. Meet with the people who attended the learning facilitation and discuss what is going well and what opportunities for improvement have been presented. I know it is not everybody’s thing but I encourage leaders to maintain a reflective journal about their leadership experiences, used properly this can be a powerful means of learning.
10. Evaluate, communicate and celebrate success. Establish what was learnt in the process and how you would do it better next time.
I put a lot of effort through internet searches and posts on OHS discussion forums into identifying suppliers of general and safety leadership learning in Australia, I have to admit however that my searches could have easily missed good suppliers. Some suppliers did not return my communications, some wanted to license me to facilitate their material, some had glowing web sites and smooth salesmanship but when I asked for relevant detail it was unavailable, with a few suppliers the e-mail address on their web site bounced, a number of the organizations I approached were unable to produce what I considered robust content and process for their learning, some of the general leadership consultants that dabbled in safety leadership had only a minor and / or theoretical understanding of safety, some promised the world but delivered very little and some consultants want to lock you into bigger than Texas programs that consume an extreme of time, effort, resources and money.
My advice is to check out both the process and content of potential providers very carefully, there are some snake oil salesmen in this space.
There are a large number of learning organizations in Australia facilitating general leadership learning, a small number of learning organizations that integrate general leadership principles into safety and very few that teach specific safety leadership. I located a handful of providers who provide lower level, more operational safety leadership training for supervisors, the higher level, more strategic safety leadership learning does not appear to be well catered for.
The American Society of Safety Engineers two day safety leadership course conducted by Eddie Greer and the Canadian Society of Safety Engineers two day safety leadership course conducted by Kirby James are the only two safety leadership courses I could find at this stage that inspired much confidence in me. Of course you have to get to America and Canada to attend. If a sufficient number of Australians were interested in attending it may be possible to bring the instructors to Australia.
I identified some consultants that use neuroscience and psychological approaches to leadership, a small number apply this to safety. My initial impression is that this may be valuable and I intend to explore it further.
The top 10 things that are essential for safety leadership
1. Leaders must visibly demonstrate commitment and focus on safety. Good leaders lead, great leaders develop other leaders.
2. Leaders must set the safety example.
3. Leaders must create high safety expectations.
4. High values and detailed standards of performance must be used
5. Leaders must listen to and involve the workforce
6. Leaders must do what they say they will do.
7. Leaders must value safety goals.
8. Employees must be made to feel they are part of something important and satisfying.
9. Leaders must reinforce, reward and celebrate success.
10. Everyone must be held accountable for safety performance.
“Good leaders are those who know how to motivate and challenge people at all levels of an organisation to achieve their best performance. In addition they support and provide the resources necessary to ensure it is possible to meet the goals that have been set”.
Posted by Wayne J Harris, Linkedin, OHS Professionals, Australia,1/5/12
“What good leaders do is create an environment that allows people to do their jobs effectively and with confidence and in my time I have developed 5 rules.
1. Agree with people what is expected of them;
2. Give them the knowledge to do what is expected of them;
3. Give them the tools to do what is expected of them;
4. Give them permission to do what is expected of them; and
5. Monitor them to see if they are actually doing what is expected of them. If they are then a big pat on the back. If they are not talk to them and find out what is not happening and point them in the right direction.
The final thing good leaders do is have a vision and are consistent in moving toward fulfilling that vision. They do not make decisions based on opportunism”
Posted by richard hamilton ,Linkedin, Safety Institute of Australia, 4/5/12
Two questions for all OHS professionals
How do you rate on the above 10 things that are essential for safety leadership?
What will you do to ensure you are a safety leader not just a safety professional?
There is a vast body of knowledge on general leadership that can be applied to safety but this is not done frequently or well in many Australian companies. Many general leadership principles can be integrated into safety leadership effectively and easily. There is a smaller body of knowledge on safety leadership that very few people are aware of. More development of cost effective learning directed to safety leadership appears necessary in Australia.
Both general and safety leadership need to be applied at a higher level in Australia. The OHS professional can have a major impact on safety leadership by application of well developed interventions.
I will leave you with a quote “Managers do things right, leaders do the right thing, always”
(Private communication, S.Munro)
Readers are particularly directed to the paper “ Leadership Principles for The Safety Professional” presented by Eddie Greer at the A.S.S.E. Professional Development Conference, June 13, 2001, Anaheim, California.
During peer-review of this paper the author was made aware of the A.S.S.E. paper “Dimensions of supervisor effectiveness” by Jim Spigener,25/6/04.This paper is considered particularly useful on the topic of safety leadership, there are some limitation in use associated with this paper and potential readers are directed to www.bstsolutions.com
“Colin Powell on Leadership”, Baraka Training and Management, U.S.A. is a powerful presentation on general leadership that can readily be integrated into OHS.
For further detail refer to Health and Safety Leadership under leadership articles on ohschange.com.au
Alexander, G., Tales from the top, ISBN 0-7852-1335-X
Andreychuk, S., 2007, Heroic Leadership Workbook, One For Wellness Consulting, Canada
BHP Minerals, 1995,Safety Benchmarking Report, San Francisco
Carter, L., Ulrich, D., Goldsmith, M., 2005,Best Practices in Leadership Development and Organization Change ,John Wiley and Sons ,San Francisco
Claudian,365,Egyptian epic poet, exact source unknown
Greer, E.,2001, Leadership principles for the safety professional, American Society of Safety Engineers, Professional Development Conference, Anahiem, California
Jacobs, J.E. Engineering and Construction Company, Internal safety document ,U.S.A.
Johnson, D., 1990,Reaching Out, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey
Kouzes, J., 2005, The Art and Practice of Leadership Coaching, John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey
Krause,T.,2004,Influencing the behaviour of senior leadership, Professional Safety, June 2004,American Society of Safety Engineers, Des Plains, Illinois
Private Communication-Jan, 2007, D. Sayers, D. Sayers and Associates , Canada, Re Canada’s Ex-Chief of Defence Staff, General Dextraze, J.A.
Private Communication, April 2012, Len Collie, mysafetyconsultants
Private communication, May 2012, S. Munro, Bloomfield Group of Companies, Maitland, Australia
Simonton, B., 2004, How to unleash the power of people, Simonton Associates, http://www.bensimonton.com
Spigener, J.,2004, Dimensions of supervisor effectiveness, American Society of Safety Engineers, Des Plaines, Illinois
Recommended reading on Leadership
Becoming a Transformational Leader-Perry K.
Understanding teams-Welbourn M.
Groups-Theory and Experience-Gersherfeld N.
Leadership-An Australian Focus-Dubrin J. and Dalglish C.
Leadership Revelations-An Australian Perspective-Henry A.
Leadership-A Communications Perspective-Hackman M. and Johnson C.
Leadership Lessons from West Point-Crandall D.
A Leaders Legacy-Kouzes and Posner
Organisation Culture and Leadership-Schein E.
Developing the Leaders Within You-Maxwell J.
Patton On Leadership-Axelrod A.
In Extremis Leadership-Kolditz T.
The Leadership Challenge-Kouzes and Posner
Portrait of a Leader-Peter Cosgrove
C.D. ‘s from the Australian Institute of Management
Understanding Integrated Leadership-Hede A.
Developing the Art of Leadership-Perry K
Leading With Integrity-Thorsborne M.