In Coal Blood

In coal blood

Society cares for the individual only so far as he is profitable

Simone de Beauvoir 1

imageThe Queensland parliament select committee report into the resurgence of black lung provides an anatomy of yet another disaster in Australia’s mining industry. During numerous public hearings harrowing statements from victims and their dependents left committee members and other attendees bewildered and emotionally distraught. Despite pledging an avowed intent to cooperate with the inquiry the behaviour from many panjandrums in the Department of Natural Resources and Mines was pitiful and shameful. The inquiry encountered repetitive and potentially unethical conduct from several senior officials, which included obstruction and obfuscation in a furtive attempt to avoid accountability and protect reputations. During one public hearing counsel assisting the committee explored whether excessive exposure to respirable coal dust was categorised as a principal hazard or operational risk. It produced a somewhat vague and imprecise response from several senior regulatory authority officials, which was exacerbated by a petulant retort from its chief inspector of coal mines. Furthermore, several accredited auditors under the Queensland state government self-insurance scheme failed to recognise respirable coal dust as a material risk and the independent JAS-ANZ auditing scheme was as equally ineffective. 28

Many regulatory authority officials were woefully unprepared, confrontational and unwilling to acknowledge any criticism despite overwhelming evidence of incompetence and bungling ineptitude, especially within its health surveillance unit. Cooperation from several senior executives and officers was deplorable and their mediocre response fell well below the expected professional standards of public service officials. Indeed, a dichotomy between securing the health and safety of its workers and supporting industry productivity prevailed. It is also worth noting that similar inconsistencies were identified during the royal commission into the home insulation program. This can only be resolved by removing the fox from the henhouse and establishing a truly autonomous statutory authority. It must be inaugurated under its own legislation and governed by a board of directors with the commissioner appointed as its chairperson. This must embody a mines inspectorate to monitor and enforce compliance with statutory requirements and investigate potential offences. The incumbent commissioner must be provided with absolute statutory independence and remain detached from any ministerial influence. 914

Major mining conglomerates and the Queensland Resources Council provided submissions to the public inquiry. The embellished documents resembled the sanitised police witness statements following the Hillsborough disaster and were almost as authentic as an AMP life assurance policy……..It is discouraging how many people are shocked by honesty and how few by deceit. Indeed BHP Billiton, the largest coal mine operator in Australia, declined to discuss its Broadmeadow operations at a specific public hearing and its representatives were forced to attend the parliamentary inquiry under summons. Additional and unnecessary impediments were even bestowed on the parliamentary inquiry from its executive government. The acting premier refused authorisation for counsel assisting to travel with delegates to the United States. It was critical to the inquiry and enabled the committee to gather valuable diagnostic evidence from several internationally renowned establishments including the Black Lung Centre of Excellence in Chicago. This internecine bickering provided further evidence of the executive government’s shallow commitment and indiscretion, especially following the lavish sojourn of several federal parliamentarians for overseas studies in Hyderabad at the expense of taxpayers. Any skerrick of judgement from the acting premier, Jackie Triad must have been clouded by overexposure to ambergris at a nearby day spa. Approval was eventually authorised by Anastacia Palaszczuk, whose former squeeze was a lobbyist for Adani mining in Australia. The select committee’s subsequent report provided 68 recommendations many of which received a sinister Orwellian and half pregnant in principle rejoinder from the minister. The response has been painstakingly slow and a tyranny of bureaucracy prevails. This includes establishment of a project management office for additional consideration of the recommendations, especially statutory independence. It involves a Likert scale survey and the qualitative results are easily manipulated by framing the null hypothesis to achieve a predetermined outcome and it appears the regulatory authority is rather reluctant to relinquish its power……Lies damned lies and statistics. 1535

Furthermore, the recent dust and respiratory health forum with its inordinate scientism and focus on health studies and reactive personal dust monitoring increased obscurantism and generated more questions than answers. It disclosed much about what is unknown regarding the acute and chronic health effects of exposure to respirable coal dust, silica and diesel particulates. The mercenary malapert, Clive Palmer an Australian replica of Don Blankenship, is the only notable omission from the advisory board at the Sustainable Minerals Institute and several other renowned corporate terrorists such as Union Carbide or Occidental Petroleum are not registered or acknowledged as sponsors. 3646

It has forced black lung victims to establish their own support network with the appointment of Greg Combet as its patron. The death toll is escalating and miners are paying an horrific price with deteriorating health and substantial medical diagnosis treatment expenses. The trauma extends to immediate dependents and close relatives who usually fund contingent expenses, which generates increasing psychosocial risks. Many miners who are engaged through labour hiring agencies often remain undiagnosed and continue working to preserve their livelihoods and support struggling families. This circumvents expensive medical examinations, therapeutic treatment and substantial travel costs, especially throughout regional Queensland where physicians and suitably equipped facilities are unavailable. Many of the victims and their dependents have been callously disregarded by mercenary corporate behemoths who have screwed more miners than the late Sir Jimmy Savile OBE KCSG. 4750

The mining conglomerates failed to fulfil their duty of care and provide a safe place and systems of work in accordance with statutory requirements. Meanwhile several panjandrums and Pecksniffian public serpents within the regulatory authority sacrificed truth to evade accountability and protect reputations. Moreover, the health scheme with its hopelessly under-resourced and shameful health surveillance unit evaporated and was unable to detect or diagnose the emergence of mine dust lung diseases over several decades. It left many victims chasing smoke and wallowing in a swamp of despair and miasma of anomie. 5155

Casualties and their dependents have recently approached their elected parliamentarians and the mining companies for assistance with their plight. It includes a proposal covering payment of one cent per tonne of coal produced each week by Queensland’s coal mining companies to establish a victim impact fund, which will be administered by nominated employer, employee and state government representatives. 5657

This will enable mobile diagnostic and testing facilities to operate throughout regional Queensland and provide former, current and retired miners with a precious and badly needed resource that can be extended to include counselling services for families and close relatives. A similar scheme operates in the United States and another was eventually negotiated with James Hardie on behalf of asbestosis and mesothelioma victims in Australia. It is an extremely modest request and merely ash tray money considering the Queensland coal industry exported approximately $40 billion worth of coal during the last financial year. 5860

Fear based leadership

In December 2015 approximately 40 permanent Glencore Oaky North coal miners were involved in a dispute regarding health surveillance and validity of their chest X-rays. The employees withdrew their labour under the provisions of statutory legislation and refused to work underground until personal chest X-rays were screened in accordance agreed classification protocols and a recognised standard. Despite the risk, many vulnerable contingent labourers were somewhat reluctant to support their colleagues and uncritically accepted the prevailing circumstances. The dissidents were immediately categorised as recalcitrant rabble rousers, segregated from colleagues and treated like pariahs. Meanwhile, the site senior executive began answer shopping and sought reassurance from the Department of Natural Resources and Mines to confirm health surveillance protocols aligned with statutory obligations. 6170

Following a somewhat vague guarantee, most activists returned to work although it eventually transpired that no Australian medical providers were independently accredited to screen chest X-rays in accordance with prescribed classification protocols. The remaining steadfast apostates were incarcerated in a remote office for their outstanding shifts and spent the time playing cards or watching four wheel drive videos. 7172

This incurred the wrath of an adversarial site senior executive who burst into the oubliette and began remonstrating with the detainees and ripping computer cords and power leads from sockets in a frantic but unsuccessful attempt to shut down the video equipment. A technician from the training department was eventually despatched to disconnect the cords and the recalcitrant dissidents were left staring at four walls to atone for their sacrilegious insurrection. This extraordinary frenzy was aggravated by unethical behaviour towards a subordinate who was recently diagnosed with black lung and transferred from underground operations to a less hazardous environment. The victim merely enquired about the prevailing circumstances and his future prospects, which provoked a rather intimidating and inhumane response. He was not told to foad but the insensitive rejoinder was somewhat incongruous with statutory rehabilitation and return to work processes and provision of suitable duties. During a subsequent parliamentary public hearing in Brisbane, the despotic recidivist begrudgingly offered to deliver a belated apology to the victim although the nobility of words requires preventive action to address the problem at the source. 7379

The site senior executive role demands accountability for strategic direction and operational performance of a large scale mining asset producing metallurgical coal for the export market. It also prescribes statutory requirements to ensure risks to persons from coal mining operations are reduced to an acceptable level. However, it does not countenance the intimidation of vulnerable workers suffering from debilitating occupational lung diseases. Such unprincipled behaviour from any professional beholden to a code of ethics would almost certainly attract disciplinary action leading to expulsion. Nevertheless, it appears the revolving doors are extremely well lubricated and much better maintained than ventilation and dust suppression equipment in underground coal mines. The uncouth socially autistic mercenary recently secured a senior role with another corporate guerrilla, which offers a substantial remuneration package as the mine dust lung diseases toll escalates and…..Nothing is more despicable than respect based on fear. 8088

These systemic callous traits are not isolated incidents and several Glencore employees were threatened with reprisals for attending regional public hearings during the Queensland parliamentary inquiry. This was further reflected by the disdain and contempt from BHP Billiton when its representatives were forced via summons to attend a hearing in Brisbane. The Department of Natural Resources and Mines response was as equally appalling and exacerbated by its dilatory leadership and lack of statutory independence. Despite repeated assurances regarding unequivocal cooperation the committee was incensed by the bungling ineptitude displayed by many irresponsible panjandrums. 8994

Numerous miners provided evidence regarding intimidation and an inordinate priority of production over protection. It became quite evident that most workers, especially contingent labourers were reluctant to raise safety issues. Individuals who complained about dust levels were usually categorised as incessant whingers, persecuted, constructively dismissed or relegated to menial inferior roles. The intimidating militaristic tactics often included allocation of unfavourable duties or jankers, such as scrubbing out trucks or an undesirable assignment with the development ball gang. It discouraged and silenced many workers, especially contingent labourers who remain fearful of retribution. Anecdotal evidence from colleagues and discussions with union representatives suggests the problem is far worse and much more oppressive when female site senior executives are involved. This aligns with the reflections of the late renowned US cultural anthropologist Margaret Mead……I do not believe in using women in combat because females are too fierce. 9599

The persecution of miners was raised with the Queensland Resources Council during a public hearing in Brisbane. It provoked an extraordinary response from the chief executive officer, who must be visually impaired or suffering from noise induced hearing loss. Despite visiting many sites and speaking with workers in crib rooms further substantive evidence was requested to verify the allegations. In yet another display of feeble and mendacious leadership, the chief executive resigned amidst the crisis and was recently rewarded with a sinecure as a director on the board of WorkCover Queensland. His successor the Grand Wizard Ian Macfarlane, a former federal Minister for Industry and Science from Kingaroy in Queensland, was busy plucking a banjo in the public gallery and devising strategies to protect corporate and shareholder interests and socialise the loss. Meanwhile, the state government juggles with chain saws to protect its virtual pot of gold that masquerades as a workers’ compensation scheme…There is no passion so contagious as that of fear. 100108

The International Labour Organization C176 – Safety and Health in Mines Convention 1995 remains unratified by the federal government. Moreover, the concepts of national uniformity and harmonisation with tripartite arrangements and true independence are merely a pipedream amidst a sinister alliance of corporate and state interests with a malevolent freedom to harm. Meanwhile, in deep north Queensland it is reminiscent of Mississippi Burning as the mine dust lung diseases toll climbs. It currently stands at 89 confirmed cases and evidence from the United States and the recent University of Queensland dust and respiratory health forum indicates it will continue escalating. Pristine hearses are waiting in the driveway at many homes of Queensland miners and the words from Karl Marx resonate……History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce. 109115

So come back, Emma Goldman, rise up, old Joe Hill

The barricades are goin’ up, they cannot break our will

Come back to us, Malcolm X and Martin Luther King

We’re marching into Selma as the bells of freedom ring

So come back Woody Guthrie, come back to us now

Tear your eyes from paradise and rise again somehow

An economy is not a society, sous les pavés la plage 116124

References

  1. Simone de Beauvoir Quotes [Internet]. Brainyquote. 2018 [cited 8 May 2018]. Available from: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/simone_de_beauvoir_149623

  2. Black lung white lies – Inquiry into the re-identification of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Queensland Report No. 2, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee May 2017 [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T815.pdf

  3. Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis Parliamentary Inquiry – Transcripts of public hearings [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/committees/CWPSC/2016/CWPSC/CWPSCTranscripts.pdf

  4. Mining safety and health [Internet]. Queensland Government – Business Queensland. [Cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: https://www.business.qld.gov.au/industries/mining-energy-water/resources/safety-health/mining

  5. Black lung white lies Inquiry into the re-identification of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Queensland Report No. 2, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee May 2017 ; pp. 250-253 [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T815.pdf

  6. Public Briefing—Inquiry into the re-emergence of coal workers’ pneumoconiosis amongst coal mine Workers in Queensland Transcript of Proceedings Friday, 14 October 2016 Brisbane; p. 18. [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2016 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/committees/CWPSC/2016/CWPSC/CWP-trns-14Oct2016.pdf

  7. WorkCover Queensland – Self Insurance [Internet]. Queensland Government – Work Health and Safety. [Cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: https://www.worksafe.qld.gov.au/insurance/self-insurance-auditing

  8. Occupational Health and Safety System Scheme [Internet]. JAS-ANZ. [Cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.jas-anz.org/occupational-health-and-safety-system-scheme

  9. Black lung white lies Inquiry into the re-identification of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Queensland Report No. 2, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee May 2017 p. 250 [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T815.pdf

  10. Black lung white lies: Inquiry into the re-identification of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Queensland Report No. 2, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee May 2017; pp.185-187. [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T815.pdf

  11. Hangar I. Report of the Royal Commission into the Home Insulation Program; p. 5. [Internet]. Australian Government Royal Commission into the Home Insulation Program. 2014 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.homeinsulationroyalcommission.gov.au/Documentation/Documents/ReportoftheRoyalCommissionintotheHomeInsulationProgram.pdf

  12. Black lung white lies: Inquiry into the re-identification of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Queensland Executive Summary, Report No. 2, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee May 2017; pp. 6-7. [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T816.pdf

  13. Role of the Commissioner for Mine Safety and Health [Internet]. Queensland Government – Business Queensland. [Cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: https://www.business.qld.gov.au/industries/mining-energy-water/resources/safety-health/mining/commissioner/role

  14. A Mine Safety and Health Authority for Queensland including the committee’s exposure draft Mine Safety and Health Authority Bill 2017 Report No. 3, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee August 2017; p. 9. [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T1453.pdf

  15. QRC Submission to CWP Select Committee Inquiry [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2016 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: https://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/committees/CWPSC/2016/CWPSC/submissions/018.pdf

  16. Submission to CWP Parliamentary Inquiry [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2016 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: https://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/work-of-committees/former-committees/CWPSC/inquiries/past-inquiries/CWPSC

  17. Exall G. Hillsborough and Witness Statements 1: The Initial Process and Subsequent Amendments [Internet]. Civil Litigation Brief. 2016 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.civillitigationbrief.com/2016/04/27/hillsborough-and-witness-statements-1-amendments/

  18. AMP and the Royal Commission – A message to our customers [Internet]. AMP. 2018 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: https://www.amp.com.au/news/2018/may/AMP-and-the-Royal-Commission

  19. Coward N. It is discouraging how many people are shocked by honesty and how few by deceit [Internet]. BrainyQuote. [Cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/noel_coward_121577?src=t_deceit

  20. Minerals Australia – Coal Assets [Internet]. BHP. [Cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: https://www.bhp.com/our-businesses/minerals-australia

  21. BHP Mitsubishi Alliance Goonyella Riverside and Broadmeadow Mines Application for amendment of environmental authority (mining activities) under section 224 of the Environmental Protection Act 1994 [Internet]. BHP. [Cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: https://www.bhp.com/-/media/bhp/regulatory-information-media/coal/bhp-billiton-mitsubishi-alliance/goonyella-riverside/major-environmental-authority-amendment-application/160331_coal_bma_goonyellabroadmeadow_applicationsupportinginformation.pdf

  22. Public Hearing—Inquiry into Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Transcript of Proceedings Friday, 3 March 2017 Brisbane; p. 26 [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/committees/CWPSC/2016/CWPSC/CWP-trnsp-3Mar2017.pdf

  23. Black lung white lies: Inquiry into the re-identification of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Queensland Report No. 2, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee May 2017; pp. 249-250 [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T815.pdf

  24. Trad J. Meet Jackie [Internet]. Jackie Trad. [Cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: https://jackietrad.com.au/meet-jackie/

  25. Black lung white lies: Inquiry into the re-identification of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Queensland Report No. 2, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee May 2017; pp. 267-271 [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T815.pdf

  26. Black Lung Center of Excellence [Internet]. University of Illinois at Chicago – Black Lung Centre of Excellence: About us. [Cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.blacklungcoe.org/about/black-lung-center-of-excellence/

  27. Robertson J, Swan J. Big bucks for MPs’ Bollywood adventure [Internet]. The Sydney Morning Herald. 2013 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/big-bucks-for-mps-bollywood-adventure-20131005-2v0wf.html

  28. Annastacia Palaszczuk Premier of Queensland Member for Inala [Internet]. Queensland Government. [Cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: https://www.thepremier.qld.gov.au/the-premier.aspx

  29. Polychronis J. Palaszczuk splits with partner Shaun Drabsch but insists the pair are still friends [Internet]. Daily Mail Australia. 2018 [cited 14 November 2018]. Available from: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5375431/Annastacia-Palaszczuk-splits-partner-Shaun-Drabsch.html

  30. Clun R. Labor changes its tune on reason for blocking Adani loan [Internet]. Brisbane Times. 2017 [cited 14 November 2018]. Available from: https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland-election-2017/labor-changes-its-tune-on-reason-for-blocking-adani-loan-20171109-p4ywx8.html

  31. A Mine Safety and Health Authority for Queensland: A further response – Report No. 5, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee October 2017 [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T2124.pdf

  32. DNRM Queensland Government response to Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee report no. 2—Inquiry into the re-identification of coal workers’ pneumoconiosis in Queensland September 2017 [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T1647.pdf

  33. Likert scale [Internet]. Wikipedia. [Cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Likert_scale

  34. Krantz D. The Null Hypothesis Testing Controversy in Psychology. Journal of the American Statistical Association [Internet]. 1999; 94(448):1372. Available from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/2669949?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

  35. Twain M. There are lies, damned lies and statistics [Internet]. BrainyQuote. [Cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/mark_twain_128372

  36. Dust and Respiratory Health Forum [Internet]. University of Queensland Sustainable Minerals Institute. 2018 [cited 14 November 2018]. Available from: https://www.vision6.com.au/v/23788/1773414928/email.html?k=PvfFPqzAGKmI1jm4Y9bjl9pXm2XZw7CX-QU0IeeOuwE

  37. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 14 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Structure_of_Scientific_Revolutions

  38. Obscurantism [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 14 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obscurantism

  39. Against Method [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 14 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Against_Method

  40. Clive Palmer [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 14 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clive_Palmer

  41. Roselle M. The Fall of Big Don, King Coal’s Brutal Baron [Internet]. Counterpunch. 2014 [cited 14 November 2018]. Available from: https://www.counterpunch.org/2014/11/28/the-fall-of-big-don-king-coals-brutal-baron/

  42. SMI Board [Internet]. University of Queensland Sustainable Minerals Institute. [cited 14 November 2018]. Available from: https://smi.uq.edu.au/smi-advisory-board

  43. The University of Queensland Sustainable Minerals Institute – Home page [Internet]. The University of Queensland Sustainable Minerals Institute. [cited 14 November 2018]. Available from: https://smi.uq.edu.au/

  44. Bhopal disaster [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 14 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhopal_disaster

  45. Woolfson C. The oil industry has yet to learn lessons of Piper Alpha [Internet]. The Conversation. 2013 [cited 14 November 2018]. Available from: https://theconversation.com/the-oil-industry-has-yet-to-learn-lessons-of-piper-alpha-15635

  46. SMI’s global industry, research and education partners [Internet]. University of Queensland Sustainable Minerals Institute. [cited 14 November 2018]. Available from: https://smi.uq.edu.au/partners

  47. Dust to Dust – Make Black Lung History – Victims [Internet]. Dust to Dust. 2018 [cited 14 November 2018]. Available from: https://www.dusttodust.org.au/victims/

  48. Greg Combet [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 14 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greg_Combet

  49. BLACK LUNG: IT’S TIME THE COMPANIES PAID THEIR WAY! [Internet]. Dust to Dust. [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://www.dusttodust.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/BlackLungFlyer.pdf

  50. Jimmy Savile [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Savile

  51. Coal Mining Safety and Health Act 1999 [Internet]. Queensland Government – Queensland Legislation. 2018 [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/view/html/2017-09-28/act-1999-039

  52. Black Lung White Lies Inquiry into the re-identification of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Queensland – Report No. 2, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee May 2017, pp. 250-253. [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T815.pdf

  53. Black Lung White Lies Inquiry into the re-identification of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Queensland Report No. 2, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee May 2017, pp. 165-221. [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T815.pdf

  54. Black Lung White Lies Inquiry into the re-identification of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Queensland Report No. 2, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee May 2017, pp. 184-192. [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T815.pdf

  55. Anomie [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anomie

  56. BLACK LUNG: IT’S TIME THE COMPANIES PAID THEIR WAY! [Internet]. Dust to Dust. [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://www.dusttodust.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/BlackLungFlyerCORRECTED.pdf

  57. QRC – Our members [Internet]. Queensland Resources Council. [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://www.qrc.org.au/our-members/

  58. NIOSH COAL WORKERS’ HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/cwhsp/ecwhsp.html

  59. James Hardie Industries [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Hardie_Industries

  60. COAL EXPORTS SET ALL TIME RECORD IN 2017 [Internet]. Queensland Mining & Energy Bulletin. 2018 [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://www.qmeb.com.au/coal-exports-set-time-record-2017/

  61. Public Hearing – Inquiry into Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis – Transcript of Proceedings, Wednesday 14 December 2016 Tieri; pp. 19-27 [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2016 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/committees/CWPSC/2016/CWPSC/CWP-trns-14Dec2016-Tieri.pdf

  62. Coal Mine Workers’ Health Scheme (formerly Coal Board Medical) [Internet]. Queensland Government – Business Queensland. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.business.qld.gov.au/industries/mining-energy-water/resources/safety-health/mining/medicals/coal-board

  63. Coal Mining Safety and Health Act 1999 – Clause 273 Withdrawal of persons in case of danger [Internet]. Queensland Government – Queensland Legislation. 1999 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/view/html/inforce/current/act-1999-039

  64. NIOSH Guideline – Application of Digital Radiography for the Detection and Classification of Pneumoconiosis [Internet]. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 2011 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2011-198/pdfs/2011-198.pdf?id=10.26616/NIOSHPUB2011198

  65. ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses [Internet]. International Labour Organization. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: http://www.ilo.org/safework/info/WCMS_108548/lang–en/index.htm

  66. Underhill E, Quinlan M. How Precarious Employment Affects Health and Safety at Work: The Case of Temporary Agency Workers. Relations Industrial [Internet]. 2011;66(3):397. Available from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/307f/e6e5c9619673dc37e5256153c25ae28efc73.pdf

  67. Answer Shopping [Internet]. Urban Dictionary. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Answer%20Shopping

  68. Submission to the Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee Department of Natural Resources and Mines 9 December 2016 [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2016 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/committees/CWPSC/2016/CWPSC/submissions/035.pdf

  69. Coal Mine Workers’ Health Scheme (formerly Coal Board Medical) [Internet]. Queensland Government – Business Queensland. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.business.qld.gov.au/industries/mining-energy-water/resources/safety-health/mining/medicals/coal-board

  70. Black Lung White Lies – Inquiry into the re-identification of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Queensland – Report No. 2, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee May 2017, pp. 165-182. [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T815.pdf

  71. Black Lung White Lies – Inquiry into the re-identification of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Queensland – Report No. 2, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee May 2017; p. 207 [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T815.pdf

  72. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 22 (Rev. 2011) Guidelines for the use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses Revised edition 2011 [Internet]. International Labour Organization. 2011 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_protect/—protrav/—safework/documents/publication/wcms_168260.pdf

  73. Public Hearing—Inquiry into Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Transcript of Proceedings – Wednesday, 14 December 2016 Tieri, pp. 21-27. [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2018 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/committees/CWPSC/2016/CWPSC/CWP-trns-14Dec2016-Tieri.pdf

  74. Public Hearing—Inquiry into Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Transcript of Proceedings – Wednesday, 14 December 2016 Tieri; pp. 13-18. [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2016 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/committees/CWPSC/2016/CWPSC/CWP-trns-14Dec2016-Tieri.pdf

  75. Glencore Oaky Creek – Fast Facts [Internet]. Glencore. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: http://www.glencore.com.au/en/who-we-are/energy-products/oaky-creek/Documents/Oaky-Creek-Coal-Fact-Sheet_20150401.pdf

  76. Fuck off and die [Internet]. Urban Dictionary. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Fuck%20off%20and%20die

  77. Claim and return to work process [Internet]. Worksafe Queensland. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.worksafe.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/image/0006/27429/Claim-and-return-to-work-process-2012.jpg

  78. Suitable duties plan [Internet]. Worksafe Queensland – WorkCover Queensland. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.worksafe.qld.gov.au/rehab-and-claims/stay-at-work-return-to-work/how-to-return-to-work/suitable-duties-plan

  79. Public Hearing – Inquiry into Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis – Transcript of Proceedings, Wednesday, 1 March 2017 Brisbane; pp. 24-26. [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/committees/CWPSC/2016/CWPSC/CWP-trnsp-1Mar2017.pdf

  80. Coal Mining Safety and Health Act 1999 – Clause 25 Meaning of site senior executive [Internet]. Queensland Government – Queensland Legislation. 1999 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/view/html/inforce/current/act-1999-039?

  81. Coal Mining Safety and Health Act 1999 – Clause 42 Obligations of site senior executive for coal mine [Internet]. Queensland Government – Queensland Legislation. 1999 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/view/html/inforce/current/act-1999-039?

  82. Occupational Lung Diseases [Internet]. Thoracic.org. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.thoracic.org/patients/patient-resources/breathing-in-america/resources/chapter-13-occupational-lung-diseases.pdf

  83. Code of Ethics [Internet]. Engineers Australia. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.engineersaustralia.org.au/ethics

  84. Doctor found to have engaged in professional misconduct by Tribunal [Internet]. Medical Board of Australia. 2016 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.medicalboard.gov.au/news/2016-05-26-professional-misconduct.aspx

  85. Wynn D. Damien Wynn [Internet]. Linked In. 2018 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://au.linkedin.com/in/damien-wynn-811a5216

  86. Anglo American – Home [Internet]. Anglo American. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://australia.angloamerican.com/

  87. Mine dust lung diseases [Internet]. Queensland Government – Business Queensland. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.business.qld.gov.au/industries/mining-energy-water/resources/safety-health/mining/accidents-incidents/mine-dust-lung-diseases

  88. Camus A. Nothing is more despicable than respect based on fear. [Internet]. BrainyQuote. [cited 8 November 2018]. Available from: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/albert_camus_382275

  89. Public Hearing – Inquiry into Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis – Transcript of Proceedings, Wednesday, 14 December 2016 Tieri; pp. 26-27 [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2016 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/committees/CWPSC/2016/CWPSC/CWP-trns-14Dec2016-Tieri.pdf

  90. Queensland CWPSC Transcripts of public hearings [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/committees/CWPSC/2016/CWPSC/CWPSCTranscripts.pdf

  91. Black Lung White Lies Inquiry into the re-identification of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Queensland Report No. 2, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee May 2017, p. 28. [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T815.pdf

  92. Public Hearing – Inquiry into Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis, Transcript of Proceedings, Friday, 3 March 2017 Brisbane, p. 26. [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/committees/CWPSC/2016/CWPSC/CWP-trnsp-3Mar2017.pdf

  93. Mining safety and health [Internet]. Queensland Government – Business Queensland. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.business.qld.gov.au/industries/mining-energy-water/resources/safety-health/mining

  94. Black Lung White Lies Inquiry into the re-identification of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Queensland Report No. 2, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee May 2017, pp. 251-254. [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T815.pdf

  95. Reason J. Managing the risks of organizational accidents. London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group; 2016; pp. 3-7. Available from: https://www.amazon.com/Managing-Risks-Organizational-Accidents-Reason/dp/1840141050

  96. Black Lung White Lies Inquiry into the re-identification of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in Queensland Report No. 2, 55th Parliament Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Select Committee May 2017, pp. 245-247. [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2017 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2017/5517T815.pdf

  97. Jankers [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jankers

  98. Mead M. I do not believe in using women in combat, because females are too fierce. [Internet]. BrainyQuote. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/margaret_mead_384384

  99. Margaret Mead [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Mead

  100. Roche M. QRC Submission to CWP Select Committee Inquiry [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2016 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/committees/CWPSC/2016/CWPSC/submissions/018.pdf

  101. Public Hearing – Inquiry into Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Transcript of Proceedings – Friday, 11 November 2016 Brisbane, pp. 1-14 [Internet]. Queensland Parliament. 2016 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/committees/CWPSC/2016/CWPSC/CWP-trns-11Nov2016.pdf

  102. QRC’s Michael Roche announces intention to step down in late 2016 [Internet]. Queensland Resources Council. 2016 [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.qrc.org.au/media-releases/qrcs-michael-roche-announces-intention-step-late-2016/

  103. Board of Directors – Michael Roche BComm (Hons), MComm (Hons), GAICD Director [Internet]. WorkCover Queensland. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.worksafe.qld.gov.au/about-us/workcover-queensland/board-of-directors

  104. WorkCover Queensland – About us [Internet]. WorkCover Queensland. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.worksafe.qld.gov.au/about-us

  105. Grand Wizard [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Wizard

  106. Ian Macfarlane (politician) [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ian_Macfarlane_(politician)

  107. Hon Ian Macfarlane MP – Biography [Internet]. Parliament of Australia. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.aph.gov.au/Senators_and_Members/Parliamentarian?MPID=WN6

  108. de Montaigne M. There is no passion so contagious as that of fear. [Internet]. BrainyQuote. [cited 29 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/michel_de_montaigne_158073

  109. C176 – Safety and Health in Mines Convention, 1995 (No. 176) [Internet]. International Labour Organization. [Cited 14 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_ILO_CODE:C176

  110. Mississippi Burning [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi_Burning

  111. Mine dust lung diseases [Internet]. Business Queensland. 2018 [cited 13 April 2018]. Available from: https://www.business.qld.gov.au/industries/mining-energy-water/resources/safety-health/mining/accidents-incidents/mine-dust-lung-diseases

  112. A Scourge Returns: Black Lung in Appalachia – Enviro Health Perspectives (Jan 2015) | Coal Mining | Dust [Internet]. Scribd. 2018 [cited 12 April 2018]. Available from: https://www.scribd.com/doc/294572699/A-Scourge-Returns-Black-Lung-in-Appalachia-Enviro-Health-Perspectives-Jan-2015

  113. Popovich N. Black Lung Disease Comes Storming Back in Coal Country [Internet]. The New York Times. 2018 [cited 19 April 2018]. Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/02/22/climate/black-lung-resurgence.html

  114. Miller slams slow Queensland government over black lung [Internet]. SBS News. 2017 [cited 15 July 2018]. Available from: https://www.sbs.com.au/news/miller-slams-slow-qld-govt-over-black-lung

  115. Karl Marx Quotes [Internet]. BrainyQuote. 2018 [cited 9 May 2018]. Available from: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/karl_marx_382655

  116. Emma Goldman [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emma_Goldman

  117. Joe Hill [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joe_Hill

  118. Earle S. Christmas in Washington: A Song About Heroes [Internet]. Chimes Freedom. [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: http://www.chimesfreedom.com/2017/12/24/christmas-washington-song-heroes/

  119. Malcolm X [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_X

  120. Martin Luther King Jr. [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Luther_King_Jr.

  121. Selma to Montgomery marches [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selma_to_Montgomery_marches

  122. Woody Guthrie [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woody_Guthrie

  123. Glover D. An Economy Is Not A Society: Winners and Losers in the New Australia [Internet]. Black Inc Books. 2015 [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://www.blackincbooks.com.au/books/economy-not-society

  124. Sous les pavés, la plage! [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 15 November 2018]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sous_les_pavés,_la_plage!

Do you have any thoughts? Please share them below